Rama laments while searching for Seetha and reminiscing over his past, which was spent happily with Seetha. Rama and Lakshmana search for her at riversides of Godavari but she is unseen there. Though Lakshmana continuously encourages Rama for a thorough search without submitting to mere anguish, Rama sinks into his own anguish.
स राज पुत्र प्रिया विहीनः
शोकेन मोहेन च पीड्यमानः |
विषादयन् भ्रातरम् आर्त रूपो
भूयो विषादम्प्रविवेश तीव्रम् || ३-६३-१
1. priyaa vihiinaH = ladylove, without; saH raaja putra = he, king's, son, Rama; shokena = by agony; mohena ca = by anguish, even; piiDyamaanaH = being distressed; aarta ruupaH = anxious, in mien; bhraataram = brother Lakshmana; viSaadayan = despairing him; bhuuyaH = again; tiivram viSaadam pravivesha = dire, desperation, drifted into.
That prince Rama whom agony and anguish are distressing has become anxious in his mien, and he again drifted into a dire desperation while despairing his brother Lakshmana. [3-63-1]
स लक्ष्मणम् शोक वश अभिपन्नम्
शोके निमग्नो विपुले तु रामः |
उवाच वाक्यम् व्यसनानुरूपम्
उष्णम् विनिःश्वस्य रुदन् स शोकम् || ३-६३-२
2. vipule shoke nimagnaH tu = in chasmal, sorrow, sunken, but; saH raamaH = he, Rama; sa shokam rudan = with, sorrow, wailing; shoka vasha abhipannam = sorrow, control, obtained - one who has gone under the control of sorrow; lakshmaNam = to Lakshmana; uSNam vi niHshvasya = scorchingly, severely, suspiring; vyasana anuruupam = to [Rama's] sensitivity, seemly; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, spoke.
Rama who is sunken in a chasmal sorrow spoke this sentence while wailing sorrowfully, suspiring severely and scorchingly, and which sentence is seemly to his sensitivity, to Lakshmana who is already under the sway of sorrow. [3-63-2]
न मत् विधो दुष्कृत कर्म कारी
मन्ये द्वितीयो अस्ति वसुंधरायाम् |
शोक अनुशोको हि परंपराया
माम् एति भिन्दन् हृदयम् मनः च || ३-६३-३
3. vasundharaayaam = on earth; mat vidhaH = my, kind of; duSkR^ita = wrong deed [blameworthy]; karma kaarii = deed, [wrong] doer; dvitiiyaH = second one [another one]; na asti manye = not, is there, I deem; shoka anu shokaH = woe, followed, by woe; paramparaayaa = in seriation; hR^idayam = heart; manaH ca = mind, even; bhindan maam eti = to burst, me, getting at; hi = indeed.
"I am second to none among the blameworthy wrongdoers on this earth, thus I deem, and indeed woe followed by woe are getting at me in seriation to burst my heart and mind... [3-63-3]
पूर्वम् मया नूनम् अभीप्सितानि
पापानि कर्माणि असत्कृत् कृतानि |
तत्र अयम् अद्य पतितो विपाको
दुःखेन दुःखम् यद् अहम् विशामि || ३-६३-४
4. maya = by me; puurvam = earlier [in previous births]; nuunam = definitely; abhiipsitaani = desirably; paapaani karmaaNi = damnable, deeds; asatkR^it = habitually; kR^itaani = [might be] done [committed]; tatra = in that [matter]; adya ayam = now, that [result of impious deeds]; vi paakaH = very much, ripened; patitaH = fallen; yat = by which; aham = I am; duHkhena duHkham = after misery, misery; vishaami = entering into.
"I might have definitely, habitually, and desirably committed damnable deeds in my previous births, and now the result of those impious deeds is very much ripened and has fallen on me, whereby I am entering misery after misery... [3-63-4]
As with the accrual of merit by good deeds, sin also accrues with impious or sinful acts anena janmaantara kR^ita paapa anuruupam phalam bhavati iti arthaH - strii parvaaNi - nuunam vyapakR^itam puurveShu janmaasu | yena maam duHkhabhaageShu dhaataa karmasu yuktkavaan - mahaa bhaarata - dk and this ripens and bechances at a later time in the shape of misfortune.
राज्य प्रणाशः स्व जनैः वियोगः
पितुर् विनाशो जननी वियोगः |
सर्वानि मे लक्ष्मण शोक वेगम्
आपूरयन्ति प्रविचिन्तितानि || ३-६३-५
5. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; raajya praNaashaH = kingdom, deprived; sva janaiH viyogaH = own, from people, departed; pituH vinaashaH = father, demised; jananii viyogaH = mother, detached from; sarvaani = all these; pra vi cintitaani = very, deeply, those that are thought over; me shoka vegam aapuurayanti = my; agony, haste of, [they are] replenishing.
"I am deprived of the kingdom, departed from my own people, mainly Seetha, my father departed and I am detached from my mother, and Lakshmana, when all these setbacks are very deeply thought over they are replenishing the haste of my agony... [3-63-5]
सर्वम् तु दुःखम् मम लक्ष्मण इदम्
शान्तम् शरीरे वनम् एत्य क्लेशम् |
सीता वियोगात् पुनर् अपि उदीर्णम्
काष्टैः इव अग्निः सहसा प्रदीप्तः || ३-६३-६
6. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; idam sarvam duHkham = this, all, sadness; [shuunyam] vanam etya = [uninhibited,] to forest, on coming; shariire shaantam = physically, [there is some] peace; siitaa viyogaat = by Seetha's, dissociation; kaaSTaiH sahasaa pradiiptaH agniH iva = by firewood [fuel,] in a flash, flaring up, fire, as with; puna api klesham udiirNam = again, even, misery, is upshot.
"All this sadness of mine has silenced physically and there is some peace on coming to these desolate forests, in association of Seetha, but with the dissociation of Seetha misery is again upshot, as with fire which flares up in a flash when fuel is added... [3-63-6]
सा नूनम् आर्या मम राक्षसेन हि
अभ्याहृता खम् समुपेत्य भीरुः |
अपस्वरम् सु स्वर विप्रलापा
भयेन विक्रन्दितवति अभीक्ष्णम् || ३-६३-७
7. mama = my; bhiiruH = meek lady; saa aaryaa = she that, noblewoman; raakshasena abhi aahR^itaa = by demon, [might be] abducted; hi = indeed; kham samupetya = sky, on reaching; su svara vi pralaapaa = with a good, voice, she who chit-chats - converses; bhayena = by fear; abhiikshNam = with a higly; apa svaram = with bad, with tune [untunefully]; vikranditavati = she [must have] shouted; nuunam = it is definite.
"My noblewoman might be abducted by a demon, and on reaching the sky that lady who converses with a sweet voice might have wept a lot fearfully, and it is definite that she must have shouted a lot, untunefully... [3-63-7]
तौ लोहितस्य प्रिय दर्शनस्य
सदा उचितौ उत्तम चंदनस्य |
वृत्तौ स्तनौ शोणित पंक दिग्धौ
नूनम् प्रियाया मम न अभिभात || ३-६३-८
8. lohitasya = reddish [sandal-paste]; priya darshanasya = pleasant, for a look [sandal-paste]; uttama candanasya = for best, [red] sandalwood paste; sadaa ucitau = always, deserve [to bedaub]; vR^ittau = roundish; mama priyaayaaH = my, ladylove's; tau = those two; stanau = breasts; nuunam = definitely; shoNita panka digdhau = blood, mud of, bedaubed; na abhibhaata = not, shining forth.
"Those two roundish bosoms of my ladylove which always deserved the application of pleasantly looking red-sandalwood's paste might definitely be unshiny, as they might be bedaubed with muddy blood when they are extricated from her body for devouring. [3-63-8]
तत् श्लक्ष्ण सु व्यक्त मृदु प्रलापम्
तस्या मुखम् कुंचित केश भारम् |
रक्षो वशम् नूनम् उपगताया
न भ्राजते राहु मुखे यथा इंदुः || ३-६३-९
9. rakshaH vasham upagataayaa = demon's, repression, went into; tasyaa [mukham] = her, [face]; shlakshNa = sweet; su vyakta = very, clear; mR^idu = softish; pralaapam = talkative; kuncita kesha bhaaram = plaited, hair, lumped together; tat mukham = the same, visage; raahu mukhe induH yathaa = in Raahu [eclipsing planet,] in the mouth of [Rahu,] moon, as with; na bhraajate nuunam = not, shiny, definitely.
"She has a sweet, softish, and very clear talkativeness on her lips. That visage with such lips is crowned with a hairdo with hair lumped together and plaited, such as her visage is, it must have become unshiny on her going into the repression of demon, as with an unshiny moon when repressed in the mouth of eclipsing planet Raahu, it is definite... [3-63-9]
ताम् हार पाशस्य सदा उचित अंतम्
ग्रीवाम् प्रियाया मम सु व्रताया |
रक्षांसि नूनम् परिपीतवन्ति
शून्ये हि भित्वा रुधिर अशनानि || ३-६३-१०
10. sadaa = always; haara paashasya = necklaces, chains [wears]; ucita = worthy; antam = at contours; su vrataayaa = of strait, laced one; mama priyaayaa = my, ladylove's; taam griivaam = that, neck; rudhira ashanaani rakshaamsi = blood, eaters [thirsty,] demons; shuunye = in a secluded [place]; bhitvaa = on mangling; nuunam = definitely; pari piitavanti = completely, drank up [her blood.]
"The contours of the neck of that strait-laced ladylove of mine are always worthy for necklaces and chain-wears. The bloodthirsty demons would have indeed mangled that neck in a secluded place and they might have drunk her blood, it is definite... [3-63-10]
मया विहीना विजने वने या
रक्षोभिः आहृत्य विकृष्यमाणा |
नूनम् विनादम् कुररि इव दीना
सा मुक्तवती आयत कान्त नेत्रा || ३-६३-११
11. yaa = who [Seetha]; vi jane vane = without, people [uninhabited,] in forest; mayaa vihiinaa = me, without [when I was away]; saa = she [such as she is]; aayata kaanta netraa = broad, bright, eyed one; rakshobhiH aahR^itya = by demons, abducted; vi kR^iSyamaaNaa = while forcibly, hauled; diinaa kurari iva = piteous, she-dove, like; vi naadam = rough, sound [discordantly]; muktavatii = released [shrieked out]; nuunam = definitely.
"While I was away from her in this uninhibited forest demons would have forcibly hauled her up when they are abducting that lady with broad-bright eyes, and she would have discordantly shrieked out like a piteous she-dove, it is definite... [3-63-11]
अस्मिन् मया सार्थम् उदार शीला
शिला तले पूर्वम् उपोपविष्टा |
कान्त स्मिता लक्ष्मण जात हासा
त्वाम् आह सीता बहु वाक्य जातम् || ३-६३-१२
12. lakshmaNa = oh, Lakshmana; udaara shiilaa = well, mannered one - Seetha; kaanta smitaa = with a bright, smile; siitaa = Seetha; asmin = in here; shilaa tale = stone, on surface; mayaa saartham = with me, along with; puurvam = once; upopaviSTaa [upa upa viSTaa] = sat very closely; jaata haasaa = birthed, smiles [with all smiles]; tvaam = you; bahu vaakya jaatam = many, words, set of [verbosely]; aaha = spoke.
"Sitting very close to me on this stone's surface, oh, Lakshmana, she that well-mannered Seetha with bright smiles was speaking to you verbosely with all smiles... [3-63-12]
He is recollecting his romantic dalliances with Seetha at the riverside of Godavari. asmin 'in here, hereabouts which now is devoid of Seetha, she used to playfully tease me in our swimming sports in this River Godavari...' maya saartham where maya sa artham 'I thought I was winning... but, she who is used to have an upper hand... hence, then I became secondary...' udaara shiilaa 'well-mannered' Seetha... for she did not bother me for such a frolicking when we were in Ayodhya, and she with all her mannerliness maintained a distance from me, as there were her father-in-law, mother-in-laws in Ayodhya, but here only two of us who are with ourselves, and we rejoiced freely...' shilaa tale upa upa viSTaa 'on the surface of any stone wherever I wanted to gain a foothold after straining myself in swim-games, she used to reach and sit on each and every acclivitous stone, prior to my reaching it, and she used to spatter water on my face, to continue more swimming... but, I was really fatigued...' then she is one jaata haasaa 'in whom laughter took birth...she used to burst out peals of laughter... that declare me as a defeated one...' And then tvaam bahu vaakya jaata aaha 'she used talk to you a lot, with lots of words, as you are in the habit of always extolling me, and she was saying to you... 'you two are mightier than the mighty, but I am a woman, you two are males and can hunt the cruellest animals, but I am woman, a rabbit in the kitchen... but, see how I defeated your almighty brother...' and the like...'
'A very interesting and linguistically important case of a prepositional verb is provided by the verses [that contain] upopaviSTa... upa vish... originally must have meant 'to sit near'. In course of time, the idea of closeness or proximity was lost and it came to be used in the sense of sitting only. Now when the idea of nearness or proximity had to be expressed one more upa was prefixed to it. Thus, we see how tautological tendencies were influencing Sanskrit in the very hoary past. The Ramayana upopaviSTa has its parallel n Hindi paas baiThnaa [where] baiThnaa is upa veshana which itself means to sit near upa= paas. But still paas is used with baiThnaa...' The Ramayana, A Linguistic Study, Pt. Satya Vrat. And to supplement Panditji's above saying, even in English this is evident and Oxford in saying meaning for proximity, says 'sat in close proximity to them' where 'proximity' itself is one upa and 'close' is another upa... Thus tautology is same everywhere.
गोदावरी इयाम् सरिताम् वरिष्टा
प्रिया प्रियाया मम नित्य कालम् |
अपि अत्र गच्छेत् इति चिंतयामि
न एकाकिनी याति हि सा कदाचित् || ३-६३-१३
13. saritaam variSTaa = among rivers, best; iyaam godaavari = this, Godavari is; mama priyaayaaH = to my, ladylove; nitya kaalam = all, time; priyaa = cherished [river]; atra gacChet api = thereunto, gone, she would have; iti cintayaami = thus, I think; saa ekaakinii = she, lonely; kadaacit na yaati hi = anytime, not, goes, indeed.
"Among rivers this Godavari is the best and it is an all the time cherished river to my ladylove, and I think she would have gone thereunto. But, at anytime she did not go there, singly... [3-63-13]
पद्म आनना पद्म पलाश नेत्रा
पद्मानि वा आनेतुम् अभिप्रयाता |
तत् अपि अयुक्तम् न हि सा कद्दचित्
मया विना गच्छति पंकजानि || ३-६३-१४
14. padma aananaa = lotus, faced; padma palaasha netraa = lotus, petal, eyed Seetha; padmaani aanetum = lotuses, to bring; abhi pra yaataa = towards, well [straightly,] gone; vaa = or; tat api = that, even [thought, idea itself]; a yuktam = not, congruous; saa kaddacit = she, ever; mayaa vinaa = me, without; pankajaani na gacChati hi = for lotuses, not, she goes, indeed.
"Or, that lotus-faced, lotus-petal eyed Seetha has gone straight to bring lotuses! Nay, that idea itself is incongruous, for she never goes to get lotuses, indeed without me... [3-63-14]
कामम् तु इदम् पुष्पित वृक्ष सण्डम्
नाना विधैः पक्षि गणैः उपेतम् |
वनम् प्रयाता नु तत् अपि अयुक्तम्
एकाकिनी सा अति बिभेति भीरुः || ३-६३-१५
15. kaamam tu = voluntarily, but; puSpita vR^iksha saNDam = flowered, trees, stand of; naanaa vidhaiH pakshi gaNaiH upetam = divers, kinds of, birds, flights, having; idam vanam prayaataa nu = this, thicket, went to, really; tat api a yuktam = that, even, not, congruent; bhiiruH = [as a] timid one; saa ekaakinii ati bibheti = she, in solitude, much, scared - to go alone.
"But has she really gone to this stand of thicket which is with flowered trees and with birds of divers kind! Nay, that thought also is incongruent, because she as a timid one is much scared of solitude... [3-63-15]
आदित्य भो लोक क्रृत अकृत ज्ञः
लोकस्य सत्य अनृत कर्म साक्षिन् |
मम प्रिया सा क्व गता हृता वा
शंसव मे शोक हतस्य सर्वम् || ३-६३-१६
16. loka = world's; krR^ita a kR^ita = performed, not, performed [deeds]; GYaH = knower of; lokasya = of world; satya an R^ita karma saakshin = truth, un, truth [good and bad,] deeds, wittnesser; bho aaditya = oh, Sun; mama priyaa = my, ladylove; saa = she; kva gataa = where, gone [strolled]; hR^itaa vaa = stolen, or; shoka hatasya = by woe, writhing [such as I am]; sarvam me shamsava = all, to me, you tell.
"Oh, Sun, you are the knower of performed and unperformed deeds in the world, a wittnesser of good and bad deeds in the world, tell me, who am woefully writhing, to where my ladylove strolled, or is she stolen... [3-63-16]
लोकेषु सर्वेषु न नास्ति किंचित्
यत् ते न नित्यम् विदितम् भवेत् तत् |
शंसस्व वयोः कुल शालिनीम् ताम्
मृता हृता वा पथि वर्तते वा || ३-६३-१७
17. vayoH = oh, Air; sarveSu lokeSu = in all, worlds [wheresoever]; yat = which [whichsoever]; nityam = at all times [whensoever]; te = to you; na viditam = not, known; na bhavet = not, will be [cannot possibly become]; tat = that [whatsoever]; kimcit na asti = in the least, not, is there [how can that exist, whencesoever]; kula shaaliniim = of noble heritage, a lady; taam = of her; shamsasva = you tell; hR^itaa = stolen; mR^itaa vaa = slain, or; pathi vartate vaa = from path, strayed, or.
"Oh, Air, whatsoever is there in the world, wheresoever it might be, or whensoever it might have happened, and whichsoever it might be, and whencesoever it might exist, that cannot possibly be unknown to you. Hence, tell me of the lady from noble heritage... is she stolen, or slain, or strayed her steps..." Thus Rama begged of the Eternals for locating Seetha. [3-63-17]
इति इव तम् शोक विधेय देहम्
रामम् विसंज्ञम् विलपंतम् एव |
उवाच सौमित्रिःअदीन सत्त्वः
न्याये स्थितः काल युतम् च वाक्यम् || ३-६३-१८
18. iti iva = thus, this way; shoka vidheya deham = by anguish, subordinated [routed by,] with physique; vi sanGYam = without, sensation; evam = that way; vilapantam = bewailing; tam = to him; raamam = to Rama; saumitriH = Soumitri; a diina sattvaH = not, dispirited, in courage; nyaaye sthitaH = in justice, standing [justifiably]; kaala yutam ca = time, oriented [timely,] also; vaakyam uvaaca = sentence, spoke [suggested.]
To such a Rama whose physique is routed by his anguish in this way and who is insensately bewailing in that way, Soumitri whose courage is un-dispirited gave a justifiable and timely suggestion. [3-63-18]
शोकम् विमुंच आर्य धृतिम् भजस्व
सह उत्साहता च अस्तु विमार्गणे अस्याः |
उत्साहवन्तो हि नरा न लोके
सीदन्ति कर्मसु अति दुष्करेषु || ३-६३-१९
19. aarya = oh, noble [brother]; shokam vimunca = anguish, release [banish]; dhR^itim bhajasva = fortitude, brace yourself; asyaaH vimaargaNe = in her, searching; saha utsaahataa ca astu = with, spiritedness, also, be there; loke = in world; utsaahavantaH naraaH = spirited, men; ati duSkareSu = [even though they are] highly, impracticable; karmasu = in enterprises; na siidanti = not, the sink [backslide]; hi = indeed.
"Oh, noble brother, banish that anguish and brace yourself with fortitude, and let you be with spiritedness in her searching... indeed, there is no backsliding for spirited men in their enterprises in this world, even though the enterprises are highly impracticable..." [3-63-19]
Lack of fortitude and spiritedness will sink anyone in a chasmal self-centred subjective grief. anena dhairya utsaahau shokam apanudya kaarya saadhakau iti suucitam - tathaa ca bhaatate - droNa parvaaNi - abhimanyu vadhe dharma putram prati vyaasaH - shocato hi mahaa raaja hi adhame abhivartate | tasmaat shokam parityajya shreyase prayated budhaH | praharSham abhimaanam ca cintayet | evam GYaatvaa sthiro bhuutvaa jahi ariin dhairyam aapnuhi | dk Thus Vyaasa advises Dharmaraja to have fortitude and courage when he was sinking under the grief for the merciless killing of lonesome Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, in Maha Bharata war.
इति इव सौमित्रिम् उदग्र पौरुषम्
ब्रुवन्तम् आर्तो रघु वंश वर्धनः |
न चिंतयामास धृतिम् विमुक्तवान्
पुनः च दुःखम् महत् अभ्युपागमत् || ३-६३-२०
20. aartaH = who is anguished; raghu vamsha vardhanaH = Raghu's, lineage, enhancer of [Rama]; iti iva bruvantam = thus, in this way, about him who is speaking so; udagra pauruSam = one with towering, bravery;, saumitrim = of Soumitri; na cintayaamaasa = not, gave heed to; dhR^itim vimuktavaan = fortitude, he who castaway; punaH ca = again, also; mahat duHkham abhyupaagamat = great [inexplicable,] anguish, he encountered with.
When Soumitri of towering bravery is speaking this way, Rama, the enhancer of Raghu's lineage, gave no heed to it, and since he castaway his fortitude he again encountered an inexplicable anguish. [3-63-20]
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इति वाल्मीकि रामायणे आदि काव्ये अरण्य काण्डे त्रि षष्टितमः सर्गः
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© Mar, 2003, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised : December 0]