Sumantra, the minister continues his narration to his king Dasharatha, about Rishyashringa's arrival at Anga kingdom of King Romapaada and his marriage with Princess Shantha, the daughter of Romapada.
सुमंत्रश्चोदितो राज्ञा प्रोवाचेदं वचस्तदा |
यथर्ऋष्यशृङ्गस्त्वानीतो येनोपायेन मंत्रिभिः
तन्मे निगदितं सर्वं शृणु मे मंत्रिभिः सह || १-१०-१
1. sumantraH choditaH raaj~naa = Sumantra, motivated, by king; tadaa idam vachaH provaacha = then, this, word, said; yathaa R^iShyasR^i~ngaH tu aaniitaH = as to how, Rishyasringa, is brought; yena upaayena mantribhiH = by which, idea, by ministers; shR^iNu me mantribhiH saha = all, listen, from me, with ministers; tat me nigaditam sarvam = that all spoken by me.
Sumantra thus motivated by King Dasharatha, said these words to king "Oh! King, how and with which idea Sage Rishyasringa is brought by the ministers of Romapada, all that will be spoken... that may please be listened from me along with ministers... [1-10-1]
रोमपादमुवाचेदं सहामात्यः पुरोहितः |
उपायो निरपायोऽयमस्माभिरभिचिन्तितः || १-१०-२
2. saha amaatyaH purohitaH = along with ministers, clergyman; romapaadam uvaacha idam = said this to king Romapaada; upaayaH nirapaayaH ayam = this one is a non-harmful plan; asmaabhiH abhichintitaH = well thought over by us.
"The ministers along with clergyman have spoken this way to King Romapaada, "this is a non-harmful plan, well thought over by us..." [1-10-2]
ऋष्यशृङ्गो वनचरस्तपःस्वाध्यायसंयुतः |
अनभिज्ञस्तु नारीणां विषयाणां सुखस्य च || १-१०-३
3. R^iShyashR^i~ngaH vanacharaH = Rishyasringa, forest-dweller; tapaHsvaadhyaayasamyutaH = absorbed in ascesis and in Vedic reading; naariiNaam viSayaaNaam sukhasya cha = in women, of worldly-matters, of pleasure, also; anabhij~naH tu = not aware of.
"Rishyasringa is a forest-dweller absorbed in ascesis and self-study of Vedic scriptures, and he is not aware of women, or of worldly-matters or of even worldly-pleasures...[1-10-3]
पुरमानाययिष्यामः क्षिप्रं चाध्यवसीयताम् ||१-१०-४
4. narachittapramaathibhiH = disquieting men's mind; abhimataiH indriyaarthaiH = with much desired, sense pleasing objects; puram aanaayayiShyaamaH = to city, we wish to bring; kShipram ca adhyavasiiyataam = immediately, let be decided.
"With much desired sense-pleasing objects that will be disquieting the minds of men, we wish bring him to the city... Let it be decided quickly... [1-10-4]
गणिकास्तत्र गच्छन्तु रूपवत्यः स्वलंकृताः |
प्रलोभ्य विविधोपायैरानेष्यन्तीह सत्कृताः || १-१०-५
5. ruupavatyaH svalankR^itaaH = beautiful ones, well decorated ones; gaN^ikaaH tatra gacChantu satkR^itaaH = courtesans, there, they go, amply gifted [by you]; pralobhya vividhopaayaiH = tempting, by many idea; iha aaneSyanti = bring him, hither.
"Beautiful and well decorated courtesans will go there to bring him hither by tempting with many a feint, and let the courtesans be given ample gifts... [1-10-5]
श्रुत्वा तथेति राजा च प्रत्युवाच पुरोहितम् |
पुरोहितो मंत्रिणश्च तथा चक्रुश्च ते तदा || १-१०-६
6. shrutvaa tathaa iti = hearing, let it be, so; raajaa ca pratyuvaacha purohitam = king, also, replied, to priest; purohitaH = priests; te mantriNaH cha = those, ministers, also; tadaa chakruH tathaa = then, carried out, that way.
"Hearing that the King replied the priest, "Let it be so..." and then the priests and ministers have carried out the plan that way... [1-10-6]
वारमुख्यास्तु तच्छ्रुत्वा वनं प्रविविशुर्महत् |
आश्रमस्याविदूरेऽस्मिन्यत्नं कुर्वन्ति दर्शने || १-१०-७
ऋषेः पुत्रस्य धीरस्य नित्यमाश्रमवासिनः |
7, 8a. tat shrutvaa vaaramukhyaaH tu = hearing that, best courtesans; mahat vanam pravivishuH = entered great forests; aashramasya asmin aviduure = not very far from hermitage; darshane = to catch a glance [to show themselves to sage]; dhiirasya = of that highly intelligent sage; nityam aashramavaasinaH = always dwelling in hermitage; R^iSheH putrsya = Sage', son; yatnam kurvanti = trials, they made.
"On hearing that order of the king those best courtesans have entered that great forest, and they camped not very far from that hermitage, making all the trials for showing themselves off to a glance of that sage. [1-10-7]
Any dictionary would give the meaning of courtesan as 'whore' or as 'court mistress'. But in Indian context, the courtesan is not to be taken in such a lowly way as just a prostitute or a whore. They belong to a caste/class of artists. Juxtaposed to the Four-Caste system there was a devadasi Temple Dancers system, which is the artist's class. On their receiving enough education and skills in the performing arts and as per their capabilities, they will be nominated as Court Dancers or Temple Dancers and the like. Ancients recognized sixty-four arts chatuSSaSThi-kalaa , which include right from music, dance, and drama, sculpture, painting etc., up to the art of thievery. Kings in their political or sovereign pursuits variedly used these Deva Daasis, the courtesans.
पितुः स नित्यसंतुष्टो नातिचक्राम चाश्रमात् || १-१०-८
न तेन जन्मप्रभृति दृष्टपूर्वं तपस्विना |
स्त्री वा पुमान्वा यच्चान्यत्सत्त्वं नगरराष्ट्रजम् || १-१०-९
8b, 9. nityasantuShTaH = always satisfied; saH = he Rishyasringa; pituH aashramaat = his father's, hermitage; na ati chakraama = not, out of way, stirred out; tapasvinaa = by hermit; tena janmaprabhR^iti = by him, birth onwards; strii vaa pumaan = female, or, male; nagararaaSTrajam = of city or of countryside; yat anyat = that which, any other; sattvam = being; na dR^iShTapuurvam = not seen earlier.
"Always satisfied is sage Rishyasringa to be in hermitage, thus he never stirred out of that hermitage, and thus he has not seen any female, or a male, or even any other objects of pleasure, either of city or of countryside from the time of birth onwards... [1-10-8b, 9]
Rishyasringa is thus not aware of gender differentiation or exposed to any other object of pleasure, and thus his father conditioned him to achieve some supreme ritual ideal.
ततः कदाचित्तं देशमाजगाम यदृच्छया |
विभाण्डकसुतस्तत्र ताश्चापश्यद्वरांगनाः || १-१०-१०
10. tataH kadaachit = then, at one time; vibhaaNDakasutaH = Vibhandaka's son Rishyasringa; yadR^icChayaa tam desham aajagaama = casually came to that place; tatra taaH varaanganaaH apashyat = there has seen them comely females.
"Then at one time Rishyasringa casually arrived at that place, and has seen those comely females. [1-10-10]
ताश्चित्रवेषाः प्रमदा गायंत्यो मधुरस्वरम् |
ऋषिपुत्रमुपागम्य सर्वा वचनमब्रुवन् || १-१०-११
11. chitraveSaaH taaH pramadaaH = they, amazingly attired, lustful women; madhurasvaram gaayantyaH = singing with melodious tone; sarvaaH R^iSiputram upaagamya = all of them, nearing at Sage's son, ; vachanam abraviit = words, spoke.
"They the lustful women are amazingly attired and singing melodious tunes, all of them neared the sage's son and spoke these words... [1-10-11]
कस्त्वं किं वर्तसे ब्रह्मन् ज्ञातुमिच्छामहे वयम् |
एकस्त्वं विजने घोरे वने चरसि शंस नः || १-१०-१२
12. brahman = oh Brahman; tvam kaH = who, you are; ekaH vijane ghore vane = lonely, devoid of people [desolate,] in deep, forests; [kim] charasi = why you move; kim vartase = why, you conduct yourself; vayam j~natum icChaamahe = we are interested to know; shamsa naH = you move, tell us.
"Who you are? Why you move lonely in these deep and desolate forests, why you conduct yourself like this? Oh! Brahman, we are interested to know... please tell us..." [1-10-12]
अदृष्टरूपास्तास्तेन काम्यरूपा वने स्त्रियः |
हार्दात्तस्य मतिर्जाता ह्याख्यातुं पितरं स्वकम् || १-१०-१३
13. kaamyaruupaaH taaH striyaH = those women are most desirable in form; tena vane = by him, in forest; adR^iSTaruupaaH = un seen are such forms; haardaat = [thereby a sort of friendship is peeping out,] friendlily; svakam pitaram hi aakhyaatum = to detail about his, father; tasya matiH jaataa = his, mind, born [he is inclined to.]
"Those women are in most desirable form and hitherto he has not seen such forms in that forest, hence a kind of friendship spouted, with which he is inclined to detail about his father... [1-10-13]
पिता विभाण्डकोऽस्माकं तस्याहं सुत औरसः |
ऋष्यशृङ्ग इति ख्यातं नामकर्म च मे भुवि || १-१०-१४
14. VibhandakaH asmaakam pitaa = Vibhandaka is our, father; aham tasya aurasaH sutaH = I am, his, true descent, son; me = mine; RiShyashringaH iti = Rishyashringa- thus; naamakarma = name [ used here to indicate his birth time even of horn on head]; bhuvi khyaatam = renowned on earth.
"My father is Sage Vibhandaka and I am his true descent son. I am known as Rishyasringa, by my name and by an event on my birth, and thus renowned on earth..."
The birth-event associated with his name is that he is born with a horn on the crown of his head. Thus he is named as Rishyasringa, i.e., R^iSi= the Sage; sR^i~Nga= horn; a Sage with a horn, and this here he recalls his birth time event.
इहाश्रमपदोऽस्माकं समीपे शुभदर्शनाः |
करिष्ये वोऽत्र पूजां वै सर्वेषां विधिपूर्वकम् || १-१०-१५
15. shubhadarshanaaH = oh august ones in appearance; asmaakam aashramapadaH iha samiipe = our, hermitage, is here only; atra vaH sarveSaam = there, to you, all; vidhipuurvakam puujaam kariSye = I wish to worship according to scriptures.
"Our hermitage is here only, oh, august ones, I wish to perform scripturally worship to you all verily there..." thus said the sage to the courtesans. [1-10-15]
ऋषिपुत्रवचः श्रुत्वा सर्वासां मतिरास वै |
तदाश्रमपदं द्रष्टुं जग्मुः सर्वास्ततोऽङ्गनाः || १-१०-१६
16. R^iShiputravachaH shrutvaa = Sage's son's words, on hearing; sarvaasaam = to all of them [courtesans]; tat aashramapadam draSTum = to see that hermitage's threshold; matiH aasa vai = inclination, having got, verily; tataH sarvaaH anganaaH jagmuH = thereby, all, women went.
"On hearing the words of sage's son, all those courtesans are verily inclined to see the threshold of that hermitage, then all the women went to hermitage. [1-10-16]
गतानां तु ततः पूजां ऋषिपुत्रश्चकार ह |
इदमर्घ्यमिदं पाद्यमिदं मूलं फलं च नः || १-१०-१७
17. tataH R^iShiputraH = then, sage's son; gataanaam tu = then, on going there; puujaam chakaara ha = sage's son has performed worship verily; idam naH arghyam = here is, our, hand-wash; idam naH paadyam = here is, our, foot-wash; idam naH muulam = this is, our, tuber fruits; phalam cha naH = juicy fruits, also, of ours.
"On going there, then the Sage's son performed worship saying "Here is our hand-wash, here is our feet-wash, here are our tuber fruits, here are the juicy fruits of ours... " [1-10-17]
This portrays the exclusion of the sage's son from the rest of the world by his father. He worshipped the courtesans, as he would worship some super-natural deities by saying the above words, which will usually be used in ritual worship of Hindu deities. He being a fruitarian has offered the courtesans the tuber fruits like sweet potatoes etc., which are ridiculous to urbanites, that too to the pleasure-taking courtesans.
प्रतिगृह्य तु तां पूजां सर्वा एव समुत्सुकाः |
ऋषेर्भीताश्च शीघ्रं तु गमनाय मतिं दधुः || १-१०-१८
18. taaH sarvaaH samutsukaaH taam puujaam pratigR^ihya = they all having received that worship enthusiastically; R^iSheH bhiitaaH ca = dread by Sage[Vibhandaka], also; shiighram gamanaaya eva matim dadhuH = quickly made-up in mind to make away that way.
"All of them have received that kind of worship much enthusiastically, but dread at the arrival of the sage Vibhandaka, they quickly made-up their mind to make away from there. [1-10-18]
अस्माकमपि मुख्यानि फलानीमानि वै द्विज |
गृहाण विप्र भद्रं ते भक्षयस्व च मा चिरम् || १-१०-१९
19. dvija = oh Brahman; asmaakam mukhyaani imaani phalaani api = these are important fruits of ours ,indeed; gR^ihaaNa = take them; vipra = oh holy One; bhadram te = safe be you; bhakShayasva = eat them; chiram = long after; maa = not.
" 'Take these important fruits of ours, oh, Brahman, you be safe, oh, holy one... eat them before long....' Said courtesans to Rishyasringa.] [1-10-19]
ततस्तास्तं समालिंग्य सर्वा हर्षसमन्विताः |
मोदकान्प्रददुस्तस्मै भक्ष्यांश्च विविधान् शुभान् || १-१०-२०
20. tataH taaH sarvaaH tam samaaliN^gya = then, they, all, on embracing him; harSasamanvitaaH = having with mirthfulness; modakaan = sweet-balls [laddu-s]; bhakSyaan cha = other sweetmeats, also; vividhaan shubhaan = in variety, of best ones; pradaduH tasmai = well presented, to him.
"Then all of the courtesans have embraced him and all of them with a kind of mirthfulness in the offing, presented sweet-balls and other varieties of best sweetmeats to him. [1-10-20]
तानि चास्वाद्य तेजस्वी फलानीति स्म मन्यते |
अनास्वादितपूर्वाणि वने नित्यनिवासिनाम् || १-१०-२१
21. tejasvii vane nityanivaasinaam = self-luminous one, always dwelling in forests [therefore]; anaasvaaditapuurvaaNi = not tasted earlier; taani aasvaadya = them [sweets,] relishing; phalaani iti sma manyate = resplendent one, supposed them to be fruits only.
"Having relished the sweets, that resplendent sage supposed them to be fruits only, for he did not taste sweets earlier, as he is always forest-bound. [1-10-21]
आपृच्छ्य च तदा विप्रं व्रतचर्यां निवेद्य च |
गच्छन्ति स्मापदेशात्ताः भीतास्तस्य पितुः स्त्रियः || १-१०-२२
22. tadaa taaH striyaH = then, those, women; vipram aapR^icChya = with Brahman, on asking [for leave]; vratacharyaam nivedya cha = on informing devotional duties; bhiitaaH tasya pituH = fearing, his, father; apadeshaat = on pretence of [their daily worships]; gacChanti sma = they went away.
"Taking leave of the Sage Rishyasringa on pretence that they also have to perform devotional duties, they the courtesans departed from there on the pretext of their daily worship, while they actually feared for the arrival of Rishyasringa's father who may hurl curses on his arrival... [1-10-22]
गतासु तासु सर्वासु काश्यपस्यात्मजो द्विजः |
अस्वस्थहृदयश्चासीद् दुःखाच्च परिवर्तते || १-१०-२३
23. taasu sarvaasu gataasu = departure of all of them; kaashyapasya aatmajaH dvijaH = of Sage Kashyapa's, descendent [grandson,] Brahman; asvasthahR^idayaH cha aasiit = became disturbed at heart, also; duHkhaat cha parivartate = he behaved in sadness, even.
"After the departure of all them the courtesans, that Brahman Rishyasringa, the grandson of Sage Kaashyapa, is disturbed at heart and even behaved sadly... [1-10-23]
ततोऽपरेद्युस्तं देशमाजगाम स वीर्यवान् |
विभाण्डकसुतः श्रीमान्मनसा चिन्तयन्मुहुः || १-१०-२४
मनोज्ञा यत्र ता दृष्टा वारमुख्याः स्वलंकृताः |
24, 25a. tataH = then; viiryavaan = sage with ascetic power; saH apare dyuH = he, on next day; vibhaaNDakasutaH = Vibhaandaka's son; shriimaan = prosperous one; manasaa vichintayan muhuH = in mind, recollecting, repetitively manoj~naaH = delightful ones [women]; vaaramukhyaaH = courtesans; svalaMkR^itaaH = well decorated ones; yatra taaH dR^iShTaaH = where, they, were seen; tam desham aajagaama = arrived at that place.
"Then on the next day Rishyasringa, son of Vibhandaka and the prosperous sage with ascetic power has arrived at that place where he saw well-decorated and delightful courtesans recollecting in mind repetitively about them alone. [1-10-24, 25a]
दृष्टैव च ततो विप्रमायान्तं हृष्टमानसाः || १-१०-२५
उपसृत्य ततः सर्वास्तास्तमूचुरिदं वचः |
एह्याश्रमपदं सौम्य ह्यस्माकमिति चाब्रुवन् || १-१०-२६
25b, 26. tataH vipram dR^iSTvaa eva aayaantam = then, on seeing the arrival of that brahman; hR^iShTamaanasaaH = with happiness at heart; taaH sarvaaH tataH upasR^itya = they, all, then, on surrounding him; tam uuchuH idam vachaH = said these words to him; soumya = oh gentle one; asmaakam aashramapadam = towards our, hermitage's threshold; ehi = please come; iti cha = thus, also; abruvan = they have said.
" Then on seeing the arrival of that Brahman, the courtesans felt happy at heart, and all of those courtesans on surrounding him said, "oh, gentle one, welcome to the threshold of our hermitage... [1-10-25b, 26]
चित्राण्यत्र बहूनि स्युर्मूलानि च फलनि च |
तत्राप्येष विशेषेण विधिर्हि भविता ध्रुवम् || १-१०-२७
27. atra chitraaNi bahuuni muulaani ca phalaani syuH = there, excellent, tubers, fruits, also, are there; tatra eSaH visheSeNa api = there, this very distinctive way; vidhiH bhavitaa = manner [hospitality,] will be there; dhruvam hi = definitely, indeed.
"There are excellent tuber fruits and fruits and there will be a very distinctive hospitality... definitely indeed..." So said the courtesans.[1-10-27]
श्रुत्वा तु वचनं तासां सर्वासां हृदयङ्गमम् |
गमनाय मतिं चक्रे तं च निन्युस्तदा स्त्रियः || १-१०-२८
28. taasaam sarvaasaam = all of their; hR^idaya~ngamam = heart pleasing; vachanam shrutvaa = words, on hearing; gamanaaya matim chakre = made up his mind to go there; tadaa striyaH tam ninyuH = then, those women took away him.
"On hearing the heart-pleasing words of all those courtesans, Rishyasringa made up his mind to go over there, and then those women took him away [to their place in Anga Kingdom.] [1-10-28]
तत्र चानीयमाने तु विप्रे तस्मिन्महात्मनि |
ववर्ष सहसा देवो जगत्प्रह्लादयंस्तदा || १-१०-२९
29. mahaatmani tasmin vipre = great-soul, that, Brahman; aaniiyamane tu = while being brought; tadaa devaH jagat prahlaadayan = then god [Rain-god,] to gladden world; sahasaa tatra vavarSha = quickly, in there [in Anga kingdom], showered rain.
"While that great soul ad Brahman Rishyasringa while being brought into Anga Kingdom, then the Rain-god quickly showered rain in Anga kingdom to the delight of the world. [1-10-29]
वर्षेणैवागतं विप्रं विषयं स्वं नराधिपः |
प्रत्युद्गम्य मुनिं प्रह्वः शिरसा च महीं गतः || १-१०-३०
अर्घ्यं च प्रददौ तस्मै न्यायतः सुसमाहितः |
वव्रे प्रसादं विप्रेन्द्रान्मा विप्रं मन्युराविशेत् || १-१०-३१
30, 31. naraadhipaH = king[Romapaada]; varSeNa eva = with specialty [of rain showers]; svam viShayam aagatam = arrived into his own country; vipram munim = to Brahman, saint; prati udgamya = gone towards [welcomingly]; prahvaH = bowed his head; shirasaa mahiim gataH = touched head to ground; susamaahitaH = self-composedly; tasmai = to him; nyaayataH arghyam pradadau = as a rule, offered water; viprendraat = from best sage [ Vibhandaka]; prasaadam vavre = boon [indemnity,] sought; vipram manyuH maa aavishet = let that Brahman be possessed by anger.
"The king Romapada personally proceeded towards that Brahman Rishyasring who is now entering Anga kingdom along with rains, made prostratiion before him, offered water customarily with dedication, and then the king Romapada besought beneficence of the best sage Rishyasringa to save him and his kingdom from the fury of his father Sage Vibhandaka, if sage Vibhandaka were to know about this pursuit of bringing Rishyasringa to Anga country, at a later time ... [1-10-30, 31]
The salutation in prostration on the ground is usually performed before Gods or Deities, in reverence. It is called saaSTaanga-praNaamam = sa aSTa anga praNaamam , i.e., saluting with eight body parts touching the ground, indicating his absolute surrender to the worshipped.
अन्तःपुरं प्रविश्यास्मै कन्यां दत्त्वा यथाविधि |
शांतां शान्तेन मनसा राजा हर्षमवाप सः || १-१०-३२
32. saH raajaa = he that king; antaHpuram pravishya = on entering palace [or inside city]; kanyaam shantaam asmai yathaavidhi datvaa = on giving bride Shanta customarily to him; shaantena manasaa harSam avaapa = he obtained rejoice with peaceful mind.
"On entering the palace princess Shanta is given to Rishyasringa in customary marriage, and then that King Romapada obtained rejoice with a peaceful mind. [1-10-32]
एवं स न्यवसत्तत्र सर्वकामैः सुपूजितः |
ऋष्यशृङ्गो महातेजाः शन्तया सह भार्यया || १-१०-३३
33.evam = this way; saH R^iSyashR^iNgaH mahaatejaaH = he, Rishyasringa, greatly fulgent sage; shantayaa saha bhaaryayaa = along with his wife Shanta; sarvakaamaiH supuujitaH = well worshipped [fulfilled] with all desires; tatra nyavasat = there, he lived.
" Thus that great fulgent Rishyasringa lived in Anga kingdom along with his wife Shanta, and with all his desires fulfilled and also well worshipped" [Thus Sumantra said the legend of Rishyasringa to King Dasharatha.] [1-10-33]
इति वाल्मीकिरामायणे अदिकाव्ये बालकाण्डे दशमः सर्गः
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©1999, Desiraju Hanumanta Rao [Revised: March, 04]